Monday, March 30, 2020

Add Essays - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Attention

Add Attention Deficit Disorder For centuries children have been grounded, beaten, or even killed for ignoring the rules or not listening to what theyre told. In the past it was thought these bad kids were the products of bad parenting, bad environment, or simply being stubborn, however it is now known that many of these children may have had Attention Deficit Disorder, or A. D. D., and couldve been helped. A. D. D. is a syndrome that affects millions of children and adults in the United States and is a very frustrating and confusing syndrome that often goes undiagnosed. While there is no clear-cut definition of A. D. D., its known that its a genetic disorder that affects males more often than females, in a 3:1 ratio, and is marked by a classic triad of symptoms, which are impulsivity, distractibility, and hyperactivity (Hallowell 6). There are two general types of A. D. D., the stereotypical, high-energy, hyperactive group, and the less known underactive ones that often daydream and are never mentally present anywhere. Typically, people with A. D. D. are very likable and are usually very emphatic, intuitive, and compassionate, however they have very unstable moods that can range from an extreme high to an extreme low instantly, for no apparent reason. Usually, they procrastinate often and have trouble finishing projects, while conversely, they can hyperfocus at times and accomplish tasks more quickly and efficiently than a normal person could. Often they have short tempers and lack the impulse to stop themselves from blowing up over minor details (H allowell 10). Although A. D. D. has just recently been discovered and there is still relatively little known about it, it has an interesting history. In 1902, George Frederic Still first thought that the dilemma of problem children was a biological defect inherited from an injury at birth and not the result of bad parenting. In the 1930s and 40s stimulant drugs were first used to successfully treat many behavior problems due partly to Stills hypothesis. In 1960, Stella Chess further boosted research in the field by writing about the hyperactive child syndrome. She stated that the behavior problems werent a product of injury at birth, but instead were inherited genetically. Finally, in 1980, the syndrome was named A. D. D., due in large part to Virginia Douglas work to find accurate ways to diagnose it (Hallowell 12). Formally, A. D. D. comes in two types: A. D. D. with hyperactivity and A. D. D. without hyperactivity (Hallowell 9). However there are several other subtypes that are used to diagnose the syndrome and arent formally recognized. The six most interesting, though not necessarily most prevalent, are A. D. D. without hyperactivity, A. D. D. with agitation or mania, A. D. D. with substance abuse, A. D. D. in the creative person, high-stim A. D. D., and pseudo-A. D. D. The first subtype, A. D. D. without hyperactivity, is the most frequently seen subtype. A common misconception about A. D. D. is that its only present in hyperactive people, while in this subtype the people are underactive, even languid. These people are the daydreamers that drift off to their own world during class or during conversations. This type is most common in females and the core symptom is distractibility. This, while being the most frequent, is also the hardest to diagnose because it seems that the people simply need to apply themselves or get their act together (Hallowell 153). The second type, A. D. D. with mania or agitation, can often be mistaken for manic-depression due to the high energy levels involved in both and the rapid changes in mood. However, on can distinguish between the two by their response to medication. People without a favorable response to lithium, the drug prescribed to manic-depressives, quite likely have A. D. D. A difficult twist to diagnosis is that the two may coexist. This occurs when the person cycles between mania and A. D. D. (Hallowell 169). The third subtype is A. D. D. with substance abuse. Substance abuse is one of A. D. D.s hardest masks to see through because the abuse itself can produce A. D. D.-like symptoms. Often when a person with A. D. D. has substance abuse problems they unknowingly

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